Article | March 16, 2020
In the age of Big Data, you’ll hear a lot of terms tossed around. Three of the most commonly used are business intelligence,” data warehousing and data analytics.You may wonder, however, what distinguishes these three concepts from each other so let’s take a look. What differentiates business intelligence from the other two on the list is the idea of presentation. Business intelligence is primarily about how you take the insights you’ve developed from the use of analytics to produce action. BI tools include items like To put it simply, business intelligence is the final product. It’s the yummy cooked food that comes out of the frying pan when everything is done.In the flow of things, business intelligence interacts heavily with data warehousing and analytics systems. Information can be fed into analytics packages from warehouses. It then comes out of the analytics software and is routed back into storage and also into BI. Once the BI products have been created, information may yet again be fed back into data storage and warehousing.
Article | April 9, 2020
In some ways at least, technology has been able to tell us more about how and where the virus is spreading. Mostly, this has involved creatively harnessing the power of big data using temperature readings from smart thermometers to detect COVID-19 hot spots, or aggregating cellphone location data to point to the areas of the country where people are staying home. But against a backdrop of debate between civil liberties and public health, we also need to be asking where the line is digitally: How much surveillance is acceptable in the service of the greater good.
Article | July 19, 2021
In an era of big data, data health has become a pressing issue when more and more data is being stored and processed. Therefore, preserving the integrity of the collected data is becoming increasingly necessary. Understanding the fundamentals of data integrity and how it works is the first step in safeguarding the data.
Data integrity is essential for the smooth running of a company. If a company’s data is altered, deleted, or changed, and if there is no way of knowing how it can have significant impact on any data-driven business decisions.
Data integrity is the reliability and trustworthiness of data throughout its lifecycle. It is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. It can be indicated by lack of alteration between two updates of a data record, which means data is unchanged or intact. Data integrity refers to the safety of data regarding regulatory compliance- like GDPR compliance- and security. A collection of processes, rules, and standards implemented during the design phase maintains the safety and security of data.
The information stored in the database will remain secure, complete, and reliable no matter how long it’s been stored; that’s when you know that the integrity of data is safe. A data integrity framework also ensures that no outside forces are harming this data.
This term of data integrity may refer to either the state or a process. As a state, the data integrity framework defines a data set that is valid and accurate. Whereas as a process, it describes measures used to ensure validity and accuracy of data set or all data contained in a database or a construct.
Data integrity can be enforced at both physical and logical levels. Let us understand the fundamentals of data integrity in detail:
Types of Data Integrity
There are two types of data integrity: physical and logical. They are collections of processes and methods that enforce data integrity in both hierarchical and relational databases.
Physical integrity protects the wholeness and accuracy of that data as it’s stored and retrieved. It refers to the process of storage and collection of data most accurately while maintaining the accuracy and reliability of data. The physical level of data integrity includes protecting data against different external forces like power cuts, data breaches, unexpected catastrophes, human-caused damages, and more.
Logical integrity keeps the data unchanged as it’s used in different ways in a relational database. Logical integrity checks data accuracy in a particular context. The logical integrity is compromised when errors from a human operator happen while entering data manually into the database. Other causes for compromised integrity of data include bugs, malware, and transferring data from one site within the database to another in the absence of some fields.
There are four types of logical integrity:
A database has columns, rows, and tables. These elements need to be as numerous as required for the data to be accurate, but no more than necessary. Entity integrity relies on the primary key, the unique values that identify pieces of data, making sure the data is listed just once and not more to avoid a null field in the table. The feature of relational systems that store data in tables can be linked and utilized in different ways.
Referential integrity means a series of processes that ensure storage and uniform use of data. The database structure has rules embedded into them about the usage of foreign keys and ensures only proper changes, additions, or deletions of data occur. These rules can include limitations eliminating duplicate data entry, accurate data guarantee, and disallowance of data entry that doesn’t apply. Foreign keys relate data that can be shared or null. For example, let’s take a data integrity example, employees that share the same work or work in the same department.
Domain Integrity can be defined as a collection of processes ensuring the accuracy of each piece of data in a domain. A domain is a set of acceptable values a column is allowed to contain. It includes constraints that limit the format, type, and amount of data entered. In domain integrity, all values and categories are set. All categories and values in a database are set, including the nulls.
This type of logical integrity involves the user's constraints and rules to fit their specific requirements. The data isn’t always secure with entity, referential, or domain integrity. For example, if an employer creates a column to input corrective actions of the employees, this data would fall under user-defined integrity.
Difference between Data Integrity and Data Security
Often, the terms data security and data integrity get muddled and are used interchangeably. As a result, the term is incorrectly substituted for data integrity, but each term has a significant meaning.
Data integrity and data security play an essential role in the success of each other. Data security means protecting data against unauthorized access or breach and is necessary to ensure data integrity.
Data integrity is the result of successful data security. However, the term only refers to the validity and accuracy of data rather than the actual act of protecting data. Data security is one of the many ways to maintain data integrity. Data security focuses on reducing the risk of leaking intellectual property, business documents, healthcare data, emails, trade secrets, and more. Some facets of data security tactics include permissions management, data classification, identity, access management, threat detection, and security analytics.
For modern enterprises, data integrity is necessary for accurate and efficient business processes and to make well-intentioned decisions. Data integrity is critical yet manageable for organizations today by backup and replication processes, database integrity constraints, validation processes, and other system protocols through varied data protection methods.
Threats to Data Integrity
Data integrity can be compromised by human error or any malicious acts. Accidental data alteration during the transfer from one device to another can be compromised. There is an assortment of factors that can affect the integrity of the data stored in databases. Following are a few of the examples:
Data integrity is put in jeopardy when individuals enter information incorrectly, duplicate, or delete data, don’t follow the correct protocols, or make mistakes in implementing procedures to protect data.
A transfer error occurs when data is incorrectly transferred from one location in a database to another. This error also happens when a piece of data is present in the destination table but not in the source table in a relational database.
Bugs and Viruses
Data can be stolen, altered, or deleted by spyware, malware, or any viruses.
Hardware gets compromised when a computer crashes, a server gets down, or problems with any computer malfunctions. Data can be rendered incorrectly or incompletely, limit, or eliminate data access when hardware gets compromised.
Preserving Data Integrity
Companies make decisions based on data. If that data is compromised or incorrect, it could harm that company to a great extent. They routinely make data-driven business decisions, and without data integrity, those decisions can have a significant impact on the company’s goals.
The threats mentioned above highlight a part of data security that can help preserve data integrity. Minimize the risk to your organization by using the following checklist:
Require an input validation when your data set is supplied by a known or an unknown source (an end-user, another application, a malicious user, or any number of other sources). The data should be validated and verified to ensure the correct input.
Verifying data processes haven’t been corrupted is highly critical. Identify key specifications and attributes that are necessary for your organization before you validate the data.
Eliminate Duplicate Data
Sensitive data from a secure database can easily be found on a document, spreadsheet, email, or shared folders where employees can see it without proper access. Therefore, it is sensible to clean up stray data and remove duplicates.
Data backups are a critical process in addition to removing duplicates and ensuring data security. Permanent loss of data can be avoided by backing up all necessary information, and it goes a long way. Back up the data as much as possible as it is critical as organizations may get attacked by ransomware.
Another vital data security practice is access control. Individuals in an organization with any wrong intent can harm the data. Implement a model where users who need access can get access is also a successful form of access control. Sensitive servers should be isolated and bolted to the floor, with individuals with an access key are allowed to use them.
Keep an Audit Trail
In case of a data breach, an audit trail will help you track down your source. In addition, it serves as breadcrumbs to locate and pinpoint the individual and origin of the breach.
Data collection was difficult not too long ago. It is no longer an issue these days. With the amount of data being collected these days, we must maintain the integrity of the data. Organizations can thus make data-driven decisions confidently and take the company ahead in a proper direction.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are integrity rules?
Precise data integrity rules are short statements about constraints that need to be applied or actions that need to be taken on the data when entering the data resource or while in the data resource. For example, precise data integrity rules do not state or enforce accuracy, precision, scale, or resolution.
What is a data integrity example?
Data integrity is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. A few examples where data integrity is compromised are:
• When a user tries to enter a date outside an acceptable range
• When a user tries to enter a phone number in the wrong format
• When a bug in an application attempts to delete the wrong record
What are the principles of data integrity?
The principles of data integrity are attributable, legible, contemporaneous, original, and accurate. These simple principles need to be part of a data life cycle, GDP, and data integrity initiatives.
"name": "What are integrity rules?",
"text": "Precise data integrity rules are short statements about constraints that need to be applied or actions that need to be taken on the data when entering the data resource or while in the data resource. For example, precise data integrity rules do not state or enforce accuracy, precision, scale, or resolution."
"name": "What is a data integrity example?",
"text": "Data integrity is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. A few examples where data integrity is compromised are:
When a user tries to enter a date outside an acceptable range
When a user tries to enter a phone number in the wrong format
When a bug in an application attempts to delete the wrong record"
"name": "What are the principles of data integrity?",
"text": "The principles of data integrity are attributable, legible, contemporaneous, original, and accurate. These simple principles need to be part of a data life cycle, GDP, and data integrity initiatives."
Article | March 23, 2021
Learn, re Learn and Unlearn
The times we are living in, we have to upgrade ourselves constantly in order to stay afloat with the industry be it Logistics, Traditional business, Agriculture, etc.. Technology is constantly changing our lives the way we used to live, living and will live. Anyone who thinks technology is not their cup of tea then I would say he /she will have no place in the world to live. It’s a blessing or curse on human race, only time will tell but effects are already surfacing in the market in the form of Job cut, poverty, some roles are no longer needed or replaced with.
Poor is getting poorer and rich is getting richer. Covid19 has not only brought the curse on human race but it has been a blessing in disguise for Tech giants and E-commerce. Technology not only changing the business but every human’s outlook towards life, family structure, the globalization of talents etc. It is nerve wrenching to imagine just what the world will look like in coming 20 years from now. Can all of us adapt to learn, re learn and unlearn quote? Or we have to depend upon countries/Governments to announce Minimum Wage to sustain our basic needs? Uncertainties are looming as the world is coming closer due to technology but emotionally going far. It’s sad to see children, colleagues communicating via emails and messages in the same home and office. Human is losing its touch and feel.
Repercussion to resists of learning, unlearning and relearning can bring down choices to none in the long run. Delay in adapting to change can be increasingly expensive as one can lose their place in a world earlier than one think. From 1992, where fewer people used to have facility of internet around , People used to stay in jobs for life but same people are now not wanted in the jobs when they go for interview as they lack in experience just because they have been doing what they were doing in one job without exposing themselves to the world’s new requirement of learn , re learn and unlearn. Chances of this group, getting a job will be negative. World has thrown different types of challenges to people, community, jobs, businesses , those people used to be applauded for remaining On one job for life ,same group of people are looked differently by corporate firms as redundant due to technology. So should people keep changing jobs after few years to just get on to learn, re learn and unlearn or continue waiting for their existing companies to face challenges and go off from the market? Only time and technology will determine what is store for human race next.
According to some of the studies, its shown the longer the delay in adopting technology for any given nation, the lower the per capita income of that nation. It shows extreme reliance on Technology but can all of us adopt to the technology at the same rate as its been introduced to us? Can our children or upcoming next generations adopt technology at same scale? Or future is Either Technology or nothing, in Short Job or Jobless there is no in between option?
Stephen Goldsmith, director of the Innovations in Government Program and Data-Smart City Solutions at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, said that in some areas, technological advancements have exceeded expectations made in 2000.
The Internet also has exploded beyond expectations. From 2000 to 2010, the number of Internet users increased 500 percent, from 361 million worldwide to almost 2 billion. Now, close to 4 billion people throughout the world use the Internet. People go online for everything from buying groceries and clothes to finding a date. They can register their cars online, earn a college degree, shop for houses and apply for a mortgage but again same question is arising , Can each one of us at the same scale use or advance their skill to use technology or we are leaving our senior generations behind and making them cripple in today’s society? Or How about Mid age people who are in their 50s and soon going to take over senior society , Can they get the job and advance their skill to meet technology demands or learn, unlearn and re learn or Not only pandemic but even Technology is going to make human redundant before their actual retirement and their knowledge, skill obsolete. There should be a way forward to achieve balance, absolute reliance on Technology is not only cyber threat to governments but in long term, Unemployment, Creating Jobs or paying minimum wage to unemployed mass will be a huge worry. At the end of the day, humans need basic and then luxury. Technology can bring ease of doing business, connecting businesses and out flows, connecting Wholesalers to end users but in between many jobs, heads will be slashed down and impact will be dire. Therefore Humans have to get themselves prepared to learn, unlearn and re learn to meet today’s technology requirement or prepare themselves for early retirement.