Graphing the sensitive boundary between personally identifiable information and publicly inferable insights

| May 1, 2018

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Sleuthing is the art of making intelligent inferences from sparse, disconnected and seemingly random data. Detectives, like any skilled analyst, are adept at using these inferences to solve real-world problems. Analysis is a profession that often demands ingenuity in how you play with the data that comes into your possession. When analysts encounter sensitive data, they must be careful not to play fast and loose with it. As the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation compliance deadline approaches, many enterprises are revisiting their procedures for analyzing, storing and protecting customers’ personal data. Privacy is serious business. Rather than assume that all customer data is fair game for them to explore, analysts must observe the bounds of what uses the customer has explicitly opted into. GDPR strongly protects personally identifiable information, or PII, that’s maintained in digital data stores of all sorts. To that end, enterprises everywhere, not just in EU member states, are investing in platforms and tools, such as SugarCRM’s latest, to beef up privacy protections as a standard operating procedure that involves: Inventorying all customer PII; Establishing processes for gaining customer consent to acquire, store, profile, process, disclose and manage PII, as well as to erase, correct, withhold and restrict processing of it; Flagging PII records for erasure, correction, nonprocessing and nontransfer; Providing customers with comprehensive access to their stored PII; and Logging all customer requests related to protecting their PII.

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Data Science Central LLC

About Data Science Central: Data Science Central is the industry's online resource for big data practitioners. From Analytics to Data Integration to Visualization, Data Science Central provides a community experience that includes a robust editorial platform, social interaction, forum-based technical support, the latest in technology, tools and trends and industry job opportunities. About Co-Founder/Executive Partner Vincent Granville: Dr. Vincent Granville is a visionary data scientist with 15 years of big data, predictive modeling, digital and business analytics experience. Vincent is widely recognized as the leading expert in scoring technology, fraud detection and web traffic optimization and growth.

OTHER ARTICLES

How big data is empowering better business intelligence

Article | March 24, 2020

Business intelligence (BI) is nothing new to enterprises that have been relying on data processing and analysis to deliver insightful reports that reflect business performance.These tools are a great match for enterprises that value the data their operations generate. BI software and programs work together to turn data into actionable insights that can drive better business decisions and market strategies and, ultimately, drive revenue as a result.Combined with the masses of external data amassing every second whether that’s customers’ feedback and experience, competitor intelligence, seasonal buying habits, or otherwise businesses can have a huge amount of data at their disposal.While BI systems draw specific data from pre-defined sources to turn them into insights, big data technologies capture data from a variety of sources in real-time, regardless of their formats or structure.

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COVID19: A crisis that necessitates Open Data

Article | August 13, 2020

The coronavirus outbreak in China has grown to a pandemic and is affecting the global health & social and economic dynamics. An ever increasing velocity and scale of analysis — in terms of both processing and access is required to succeed in the face of unimaginable shifts of market; health and social paradigms. The COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by an Infodemic. With the global Novel Coronavirus pandemic filling headlines, TV news space and social media it can seem as if we are drowning in information and data about the virus. With so much data being pushed at us and shared it can be hard for the general public to know what is correct, what is useful and (unfortunately) what is dangerous. In general, levels of trust in scientists are quite high albeit with differences across countries and regions. A 2019 survey conducted across 140 countries showed that, globally, 72% of the respondents trusted scientists at “high” or “medium” levels. However, the proportion expressing “high” or “medium” levels of trust in science ranged from about 90% in Northern and Western Europe to 68% in South America and 48% in Central Africa (Rabesandratana, 2020). In times of crisis, like the ongoing spread of COVID-19, both scientific & non-scientific data should be a trusted source for information, analysis and decision making. While global sharing and collaboration of research data has reached unprecedented levels, challenges remain. Trust in at least some of the data is relatively low, and outstanding issues include the lack of specific standards, co-ordination and interoperability, as well as data quality and interpretation. To strengthen the contribution of open science to the COVID-19 response, policy makers need to ensure adequate data governance models, interoperable standards, sustainable data sharing agreements involving public sector, private sector and civil society, incentives for researchers, sustainable infrastructures, human and institutional capabilities and mechanisms for access to data across borders. The COVID19 data is cited critical for vaccine discovery; planning and forecasting for healthcare set up; emergency systems set up and expected to contribute to policy objectives like higher transparency and accountability, more informed policy debates, better public services, greater citizen engagement, and new business development. This is precisely why the need to have “open data” access to COVID-19 information is critical for humanity to succeed. In global emergencies like the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, open science policies can remove obstacles to the free flow of research data and ideas, and thus accelerate the pace of research critical to combating the disease. UNESCO have set up open access to few data is leading a major role in this direction. Thankfully though, scientists around the world working on COVID-19 are able to work together, share data and findings and hopefully make a difference to the containment, treatment and eventually vaccines for COVID-19. Science and technology are essential to humanity’s collective response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet the extent to which policymaking is shaped by scientific evidence and by technological possibilities varies across governments and societies, and can often be limited. At the same time, collaborations across science and technology communities have grown in response to the current crisis, holding promise for enhanced cooperation in the future as well. A prominent example of this is the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), launched in 2017 as a partnership between public, private, philanthropic and civil society organizations to accelerate the development of epidemic vaccines. Its ongoing work has cut the expected development time for a COVID-19 vaccine to 12–18 months, and its grants are providing quick funding for some promising early candidates. It is estimated that an investment of USD 2 billion will be needed, with resources being made available from a variety of sources (Yamey, et al., 2020). The Open COVID Pledge was launched in April 2020 by an international coalition of scientists, lawyers, and technology companies, and calls on authors to make all intellectual property (IP) under their control available, free of charge, and without encumbrances to help end the COVID-19 pandemic, and reduce the impact of the disease. Some notable signatories include Intel, Facebook, Amazon, IBM, Sandia National Laboratories, Hewlett Packard, Microsoft, Uber, Open Knowledge Foundation, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and AT&T. The signatories will offer a specific non-exclusive royalty-free Open COVID license to use IP for the purpose of diagnosing, preventing and treating COVID-19. Also illustrating the power of open science, online platforms are increasingly facilitating collaborative work of COVID-19 researchers around the world. A few examples include: 1. Research on treatments and vaccines is supported by Elixir, REACTing, CEPI and others. 2. WHO funded research and data organization. 3. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine releases a dataset about the environments that have led to significant clusters of COVID-19 cases,containing more than 250 records with date, location, if the event was indoors or outdoors, and how many individuals became infected. (7/24/20) 4. The European Union Science Hub publishes a report on the concept of data-driven Mobility Functional Areas (MFAs). They demonstrate how mobile data calculated at a European regional scale can be useful for informing policies related to COVID-19 and future outbreaks. (7/16/20) While clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data about COVID-19 is widely available, including genomic sequencing of the pathogen, a number of challenges remain: 1. All data is not sufficiently findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR), or not yet FAIR data. 2. Sources of data tend to be dispersed, even though many pooling initiatives are under way, curation needs to be operated “on the fly”. 3. In addition, many issues arise around the interpretation of data – this can be illustrated by the widely followed epidemiological statistics. Typically, the statistics concern “confirmed cases”, “deaths” and “recoveries”. Each of these items seem to be treated differently in different countries, and are sometimes subject to methodological changes within the same country. 4. Specific standards for COVID-19 data therefore need to be established, and this is one of the priorities of the UK COVID-19 Strategy. A working group within Research Data Alliance has been set up to propose such standards at an international level. Given the achievements and challenges of open science in the current crisis, lessons from prior experience & from SARS and MARS outbreaks globally can be drawn to assist the design of open science initiatives to address the COVID-19 crisis. The following actions can help to further strengthen open science in support of responses to the COVID-19 crisis: 1. Providing regulatory frameworks that would enable interoperability within the networks of large electronic health records providers, patient mediated exchanges, and peer-to-peer direct exchanges. Data standards need to ensure that data is findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable, including general data standards, as well as specific standards for the pandemic. 2. Working together by public actors, private actors, and civil society to develop and/or clarify a governance framework for the trusted reuse of privately-held research data toward the public interest. This framework should include governance principles, open data policies, trusted data reuse agreements, transparency requirements and safeguards, and accountability mechanisms, including ethical councils, that clearly define duties of care for data accessed in emergency contexts. 3. Securing adequate infrastructure (including data and software repositories, computational infrastructure, and digital collaboration platforms) to allow for recurrent occurrences of emergency situations. This includes a global network of certified trustworthy and interlinked repositories with compatible standards to guarantee the long-term preservation of FAIR COVID-19 data, as well as the preparedness for any future emergencies. 4. Ensuring that adequate human capital and institutional capabilities are in place to manage, create, curate and reuse research data – both in individual institutions and in institutions that act as data aggregators, whose role is real-time curation of data from different sources. In increasingly knowledge-based societies and economies, data are a key resource. Enhanced access to publicly funded data enables research and innovation, and has far-reaching effects on resource efficiency, productivity and competitiveness, creating benefits for society at large. Yet these benefits must also be balanced against associated risks to privacy, intellectual property, national security and the public interest. Entities such as UNESCO are helping the open science movement to progress towards establishing norms and standards that will facilitate greater, and more timely, access to scientific research across the world. Independent scientific assessments that inform the work of many United Nations bodies are indicating areas needing urgent action, and international cooperation can help with national capacities to implement them. At the same time, actively engaging with different stakeholders in countries around the dissemination of the findings of such assessments can help in building public trust in science.

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Living upto Learn, Re Learn and Unlearn

Article | March 23, 2021

Learn, re Learn and Unlearn The times we are living in, we have to upgrade ourselves constantly in order to stay afloat with the industry be it Logistics, Traditional business, Agriculture, etc.. Technology is constantly changing our lives the way we used to live, living and will live. Anyone who thinks technology is not their cup of tea then I would say he /she will have no place in the world to live. It’s a blessing or curse on human race, only time will tell but effects are already surfacing in the market in the form of Job cut, poverty, some roles are no longer needed or replaced with. Poor is getting poorer and rich is getting richer. Covid19 has not only brought the curse on human race but it has been a blessing in disguise for Tech giants and E-commerce. Technology not only changing the business but every human’s outlook towards life, family structure, the globalization of talents etc. It is nerve wrenching to imagine just what the world will look like in coming 20 years from now. Can all of us adapt to learn, re learn and unlearn quote? Or we have to depend upon countries/Governments to announce Minimum Wage to sustain our basic needs? Uncertainties are looming as the world is coming closer due to technology but emotionally going far. It’s sad to see children, colleagues communicating via emails and messages in the same home and office. Human is losing its touch and feel. Repercussion to resists of learning, unlearning and relearning can bring down choices to none in the long run. Delay in adapting to change can be increasingly expensive as one can lose their place in a world earlier than one think. From 1992, where fewer people used to have facility of internet around , People used to stay in jobs for life but same people are now not wanted in the jobs when they go for interview as they lack in experience just because they have been doing what they were doing in one job without exposing themselves to the world’s new requirement of learn , re learn and unlearn. Chances of this group, getting a job will be negative. World has thrown different types of challenges to people, community, jobs, businesses , those people used to be applauded for remaining On one job for life ,same group of people are looked differently by corporate firms as redundant due to technology. So should people keep changing jobs after few years to just get on to learn, re learn and unlearn or continue waiting for their existing companies to face challenges and go off from the market? Only time and technology will determine what is store for human race next. According to some of the studies, its shown the longer the delay in adopting technology for any given nation, the lower the per capita income of that nation. It shows extreme reliance on Technology but can all of us adopt to the technology at the same rate as its been introduced to us? Can our children or upcoming next generations adopt technology at same scale? Or future is Either Technology or nothing, in Short Job or Jobless there is no in between option? Stephen Goldsmith, director of the Innovations in Government Program and Data-Smart City Solutions at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, said that in some areas, technological advancements have exceeded expectations made in 2000. The Internet also has exploded beyond expectations. From 2000 to 2010, the number of Internet users increased 500 percent, from 361 million worldwide to almost 2 billion. Now, close to 4 billion people throughout the world use the Internet. People go online for everything from buying groceries and clothes to finding a date. They can register their cars online, earn a college degree, shop for houses and apply for a mortgage but again same question is arising , Can each one of us at the same scale use or advance their skill to use technology or we are leaving our senior generations behind and making them cripple in today’s society? Or How about Mid age people who are in their 50s and soon going to take over senior society , Can they get the job and advance their skill to meet technology demands or learn, unlearn and re learn or Not only pandemic but even Technology is going to make human redundant before their actual retirement and their knowledge, skill obsolete. There should be a way forward to achieve balance, absolute reliance on Technology is not only cyber threat to governments but in long term, Unemployment, Creating Jobs or paying minimum wage to unemployed mass will be a huge worry. At the end of the day, humans need basic and then luxury. Technology can bring ease of doing business, connecting businesses and out flows, connecting Wholesalers to end users but in between many jobs, heads will be slashed down and impact will be dire. Therefore Humans have to get themselves prepared to learn, unlearn and re learn to meet today’s technology requirement or prepare themselves for early retirement.

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THE NOT-SO-DISTANT FUTURE OF WORK

Article | November 20, 2020

As smart machines, data, and algorithms usher in dramatic technological transformation, its global impact spans from cautious optimism to doomsday scenarios. Widespread transformation, displacement, and disaggregation of world labor markets is speculated in countries like India, with an estimated 600 million workforce by 2022, as well as the global labor market. Even today, we are witnessing the resurgence of 'hybrid' jobs where distinctive human abilities are paired with data and algorithms, and 'super' jobs that involve deep tech. Our historical response to such tectonic shifts and upheavals has been predictable so far - responding with trepidation and uncertainty in the beginning followed by a period of painful transition. Communities and nations that can sense and respond will be able to shape social, economic, and political order decisively. However, with general AI predictably coming of age by 2050-60, governments will need to frame effective policies to respond to their obligations to their citizens. This involves the creation of a new social contract between the individual, enterprise, and state for an inclusive and equitable society. The present age is marked by automation, augmentation, and amplification of human talent by transformative technologies. A typical career may go through 15-20 transitions. And given the gig economy, the shelf-life of skills is rapidly shrinking. Many agree that for the next 30 years, the nature and the volume of jobs will get significantly redefined. So even as it is nearly impossible to gaze into the crystal ball 100 years later, one can take a shot at what jobs may emerge in the next 20-30 years given the present state. So here is a glimpse into the kind of technological changes the next generation might witness that will change the employment scenario: RESTORATION OF BIODIVERSITY Our biodiversity is shrinking frighteningly fast - for both flora and fauna. Extinct species revivalists may be challenged with restoring and reintegrating pertinent elements back into the natural environment. Without biodiversity, humanity will perish. PERSONALIZED HEALTHCARE Medicine is rapidly getting personalized as genome sequencing becomes commonplace. Even today, Elon Musk's Neuralink is working on brain-machine interfaces. So you may soon be able to upload your brain onto a computer where it can be edited, transformed, and re-uploaded back into you. Anti-aging practitioners will be tasked with enhancing human life-spans to ensure we stay productive late into our twilight years. Gene sequencers will help personalize treatments and epigenetic therapists will manipulate gene expression to overcome disease and decay. Brain neurostimulation experts and augmentationists may be commonplace to ensure we are happier, healthier, and disease-free. In fact, happiness itself may get redefined as it shifts from the quality of our relationships to that between man-machine integration. THE QUANTIFIED SELF As more of the populace interact and engage with a digitized world, digital rehabilitators will help you detox and regain your sense of self, which may get inseparably intertwined with smart machines and interfaces. DATA-LED VALUE CREATION Data is exploding at a torrid pace and becoming a source of value-creation. While today's organizations are scrambling to create data lakes, future data-centers will be entrusted with sourcing high-value data, securing rights to it, and even licensing it to others. Data will increasingly create competitive asymmetries amongst organizations and nations. Data brokers will be the new intermediaries and data detectives, analysts, monitors or watchers, auditors, and frackers will emerge as new-age roles. Since data and privacy issues are entwined together, data regulators, ethicists, and trust professionals will thrive. Many new cyber laws will come into existence. HEALING THE PLANET As the world grapples with the specter of climate change, our focus on sustainability and clean energy will intensify. Our landfills are choked with both toxic and non-toxic waste. Plastic alone takes almost 1000 years to degrade, so landfill operators will use earthworm-like robots to help decompose waste and recoup precious recyclable waste. Nuclear fusion will emerge as the new source of clean energy, creating a broad gamut of engineers, designers, integrators, architects, and planners around it. We may even generate power in space. Since our oceans are infested with waste, a lot of initiatives and roles will emerge around cleaning the marine environment to ensure natural habitat and food security. TAMING THE GENOME As technologies like CRISPR and Prime-editing mature, we may see a resurgence of biohackers and programmable healthcare. Our health and nutrition may be algorithmically managed. CRISPR-like advancements will need a swathe of engineers, technicians, auditors, and regulators for genetically engineered health that may overcome a wide variety of diseases for longer life-expectancy. THE RISE OF BOTS Humanoid and non-humanoid robots will need entire workforce ecosystems around them spanning from suppliers, programmers, operators, and maintenance experts to ethicists and UI-designers. Smart robot psychologists will have to counsel them and ensure they are safe and friendly. Regulators may grant varying levels of autonomy to robots. DATA LOADS THE GUN, CREATIVITY FIRES THE TRIGGER Today's deep-learning Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can create music like Mozart and paintings like Picasso. Such advancements will give birth to a wide array of AI-enhanced professionals, like musicians, painters, authors, quantum programmers, cybersecurity experts, educators, etc. FROM AUGMENTATION TO AUTONOMY Autonomous driving is about to mature in the next few years and will extend to air and space travel. Safety will exceed human capabilities and we may soon reach a state of diminishing returns where we will employ fewer humans to prevent mishaps and unforeseen occurrences. This industry will need supportive command center managers, traffic analyzers, fleet managers, and people to ensure onboarding experience. BLOCKCHAIN BECOMES PERVASIVE Blockchain will create a lot of jobs for its mainstream and derivative applications. Even though most of its present applications are in Financial Services, Supply Chain, and Asset Management industries, very soon its adoption and integration will be a lot more expansive. Engineers, designers, UI/UX experts, analysts, auditors, and regulators will be required to manage blockchain-related applications. With Crypto being one of its better-known applications, a lot of transaction specialists, miners, insurers, wealth managers, and regulators will be needed. Crypto exchanges will come under the purview of the regulatory framework. 3D PRINTING TURNS GAME-CHANGER Additive manufacturing, also popularly called 3D printing, will mature in its precision, capabilities, and market potential. Lab-grown, 3D-printed food will be part of our regular diet. Transplantable organs will be generated using stem cell research and 3D printing. Amputees and the disabled will adopt 3D-printed limbs and prosthetics. Its applications for high-precision reconstructive surgery are already commonplace. Pills are being 3D printed as we speak. So again, we are looking at 3D printers, operators, material scientists, pharmacists, construction experts, etc. THE COLONIZATION OF OUTER SPACE Amazon's Blue Origin and Elon Musk's SpaceX signal a new horizon. As space tech gets into a new trajectory, a new breed of commercial space pilots, mission planners, launch managers, cargo experts, ground crew, experience designers, etc. will be required. Since we have ravaged the limited resources of our planet already, mankind will need to venture into asteroid mining for rare and precious metals. This will need scouts and surveyors, meteorologists, remote bot operators, remotely managed factories, and whatnot. THE HYPER-CONNECTED WORLD By 2020, we already have anywhere between 50-75 billion connected devices. By 2040, this will likely swell to more than 100 trillion sensors that will spew out a dizzying volume of real-time data ready for analytics and AI. A complete IoT system as we know it is aware, autonomous, and actionable, just like a self-driving car. Imagine the number of data modelers, sensor designers and installers, signal architects and engineers that will be needed. Home automation will be pervasive and smart medicines, implants, and wearables will be the norms of the day. DRONES USHER IN DISRUPTION Unmanned aerial and underwater drones are already becoming ubiquitous for applications in aerial surveillance, delivery, and security. Countries are awakening to their potential as well as possibilities of misuse. Command centers, just like that for space travel, will manage them as countries rush to put in a regulatory framework around them. An army of designers, programmers, security experts, traffic flow optimizers will harness their true potential. SHIELDING YOUR DATA With data come cyber threats, data breaches, cyber warfare, cyber espionage, and a host of other issues. The more data-dependent and connected the world is, the bigger the problem of cybersecurity will be. The severity of the problem will increase manifold from the current issues like phishing, spyware, malware, viruses and worms, ransomware, DoS/ DDoS attacks, hacktivism, and cybersecurity will indeed be big business. The problem is that threats are increasing 10X faster than investments in this space and the interesting thing is that it is a lot more about audits, governance, policies, and compliance than technology alone. FOOD-TECH COMES OF AGE As the world population grows to 9.7 billion people in 2050, cultured food and lab-grown meat will hit our tables to ensure food security. Entire food chains and value delivery networks will see an unprecedented change. Agriculture will be transformed with robotics, IoT, drones, and the food-tech sector will take off in a big way. QUANTUM COMPUTING SOLVES INTRACTABLE PROBLEMS Finally, while the list is very long, let’s touch upon the advent of qubits, or Quantum computing. With its ability to break the best encryption on the planet, the traditional asymmetric encryption, public key infrastructure, digital envelopes, and digital certificates in use today will be rendered useless. Bring in the quantum programmers, analysts, privacy and trust managers, health monitors, etc. As we brace for the world that looms large ahead of us, the biggest enabler that will be transformed itself will be Education 4.0. Education will cease to be a phase in your life. Life-long interventions will be needed to adapt, impart, and shape the skills of individuals that are ready for the future of work. More power to the people!

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Spotlight

Data Science Central LLC

About Data Science Central: Data Science Central is the industry's online resource for big data practitioners. From Analytics to Data Integration to Visualization, Data Science Central provides a community experience that includes a robust editorial platform, social interaction, forum-based technical support, the latest in technology, tools and trends and industry job opportunities. About Co-Founder/Executive Partner Vincent Granville: Dr. Vincent Granville is a visionary data scientist with 15 years of big data, predictive modeling, digital and business analytics experience. Vincent is widely recognized as the leading expert in scoring technology, fraud detection and web traffic optimization and growth.

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