SparkR: Transforming R into a tool for big data analytics

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This white paper introduces SparkR, a package for the R statistical programming language that enables programmers and data scientists to access large-scale in-memory data processing. The R runtime is single-threaded and can therefore normally only run on a single computer, processing data sets that fit within that machine’s memory. By providing a bridge to Spark’s distributed computation engine, SparkR enables large R jobs to run across multiple cores within a single machine or across nodes in massively parallel clusters, with access to all the memory in the cluster.

Spotlight

Greenplum Database

Greenplum Database® is an advanced, fully featured, open source data warehouse. It provides powerful and rapid analytics on petabyte scale data volumes. Uniquely geared toward big data analytics, Greenplum Database is powered by the world’s most advanced cost-based query optimizer delivering high analytical query performance on large data volumes. Greenplum Database® project is released under the Apache 2 license. We want to thank all our current community contributors and are interested in all new potential contributions. For the Greenplum Database community no contribution is too small, we encourage all types of contributions.

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How Business Analytics Accelerates Your Business Growth

Article | April 30, 2020

In the present complex and volatile market with data as a nucleus, analytics becomes a core function for any enterprise that relies on data-driven insights to understand their customers, trends, and business environments. In the age of digitization and automation, it is only sensible to make a move to analytics for a data-driven approach for your business. While a host of sources including Digital clicks, social media, POS terminal, and sensors enrich the data quality, data can be collected along various stages of interactions, and initiatives were taken. Customers leave their unique data fingerprint when interacting with the enterprise, which when put through analytics provides actionable insights to make important business decisions. Table of Contents: Business Analytics or Business Intelligence: The Difference Growth Acceleration with Business Analytics Business Analytics or Business Intelligence (BI): The Difference Business Intelligence comes within the descriptive phase of analytics. BI is where most enterprises start using an analytics program. BI uses software and services to turn data into actionable intelligence that helps an enterprise to make informed and strategic decisions. It’s information about the data itself. It’s not trying to do anything beyond telling a story about what the data is saying. - Beverly Wright, Executive Director, Business Analytics Center, Georgia Tech’s Scheller College of Business Some businesses might use BI and BA interchangeably, though some believe BI to be the know-how of what has happened, while the analytics or advanced analytics work to anticipate the various future scenarios. BI uses more structured data from traditional enterprise platforms, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) or financial software systems, and it delivers views into past financial transactions or other past actions in areas such as operations and the supply chain. Today, experts say BI’s value to organizations is derived from its ability to provide visibility into such areas and business tasks, including contractual reconciliation. Someone will look at reports from, for example, last year’s sales — that’s BI — but they’ll also get predictions about next year’s sales — that’s business analytics — and then add to that a what-if capability: What would happen if we did X instead of Y. - CindiHowson, research vice president at Gartner A subset of business intelligence (BI), business analytics is implemented to determine which datasets are useful and how they can be leveraged to solve problems and increase efficiency, productivity, and revenue. It is the process of collating, sorting, processing, and studying business data, and using statistical models and iterative methodologies to transform data into business insights. BA is more prescriptive and uses methods that can analyze data, recognize patterns, and develops models that clarify past events, make future predictions, and recommend future discourse. Analysts use sophisticated data, quantitative analysis, and mathematical models to provide a solution for data-driven issues. To expand their understanding of complex data sets, and artificial intelligence, deep learning, and neural networks to micro-segment available data and identify patterns they can utilize statistics, information systems, computer science, and operations research. Let’s discuss the 5 ways business analytics can help you accelerate your business growth. READ MORE: HOW TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES IN ADOPTING DATA ANALYTICS Growth Acceleration with Business Analytics 1. Expansion planning Let’s say you’re planning an expansion opening a branch, store, restaurant, or office in a new location and have accumulated a lot of information about your growing customer base, equipment or other asset maintenance, employee payment, and delivery or distribution schedule. What if we told it is possible to get into a much detailed planning process with all that information available? It becomes possible with business analytics. With BA you can find insights in visualizations and dashboards and then research them further with business intelligence and reports. Moreover, you can interact with the results and use the information to create your expansion plan. 2. Finding your audience You’re right to examine your current customer data but you should also be looking into the customer sentiments towards your brand and who is saying what, and in what parts of the region. Business Analytics offers social media analysis so you can bring together internal and external customer data to create a profile of your customers, both existing and potential. Thus, you have prepared an ideal demographic, which can be used to identify people that are most likely to turn to your products or services. As a result, you have successfully deduced the area that offers the most in terms of expansion and customer potential. 3. Creating your business plan The real-time interaction with your data provides a detailed map of the current progress as well as your performance. Business Analytics solutions offer performance indicators to find and forecast trends in sales, turnover, and growth. This can be used in the in-depth development of a business plan for the next phase of your thriving franchise. 4. Developing your marketing campaign With Business Analytics, you’re capable of sending the right message to the audience most eager to try your product/service as part of a marketing campaign. You’re empowered to narrow down branding details, messaging tone and customer preferences, like the right offers that will differentiate you from the other businesses in the area. Using BA, you have gained a competitive edge by making sure you offer something new to your customers and prospects. It enables you to use your data to derive customer insights, make insight-driven decisions, do targeted marketing, and make business development decisions with confidence. 5. Use predictive insights to take action With analytics tools like predictive analytics, your expansion plans are optimized. It enables you to pinpoint and research about the factors that are influencing your outcomes so that you can be assured of being on the right track. When you can identify and understand your challenges quickly and resolve them faster, you improve the overall business performance resulting in successful expansion and accelerated growth. READ MORE: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE, DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA ANALYTICS

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How Better Asset Data Drives Better Capital Planning

Article | April 30, 2020

What are your physical assets telling you? Are they performing to design capacity? Are they providing the expected return on investment? Are they aging and in need of capital investment or replacement? We live in an increasingly data-rich environment, and successful companies must take full advantage of transforming data to information. Among manufacturers there’s growing awareness of how data and analytics can drive operations and maintenance, predicting breakdowns and reducing downtime. However, it’s possible to go further. A mostly untapped opportunity for manufacturers exists in the use of operational data from the factory floor to inform better capital allocation decisions.

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COMBATING COVID-19 WITH THE HELP OF AI, ANALYTICS AND AUTOMATION

Article | April 30, 2020

Across the world, governments and health authorities are now exploring distinct ways to contain the spread of Covid-19 as the virus has already dispersed across 196 countries in a short time. According to a professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at George Washington University and SAS analytics manager for infectious diseases epidemiology and biostatistics, data, analytics, AI and other technology can play a significant role in helping identify, understand and assist in predicting disease spread and progression.In its response to the virus, China, where the first case of coronavirus reported in late December 2019, started utilizing its sturdy tech sector. The country has specifically deployed AI, data science, and automation technology to track, monitor and defeat the pandemic. Also, tech players in China, such as Alibaba, Baidu, Huawei, among others expedited their company’s healthcare initiatives in their contribution to combat Covid-19.

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What is Data Integrity and Why is it Important?

Article | April 30, 2020

In an era of big data, data health has become a pressing issue when more and more data is being stored and processed. Therefore, preserving the integrity of the collected data is becoming increasingly necessary. Understanding the fundamentals of data integrity and how it works is the first step in safeguarding the data. Data integrity is essential for the smooth running of a company. If a company’s data is altered, deleted, or changed, and if there is no way of knowing how it can have significant impact on any data-driven business decisions. Data integrity is the reliability and trustworthiness of data throughout its lifecycle. It is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. It can be indicated by lack of alteration between two updates of a data record, which means data is unchanged or intact. Data integrity refers to the safety of data regarding regulatory compliance- like GDPR compliance- and security. A collection of processes, rules, and standards implemented during the design phase maintains the safety and security of data. The information stored in the database will remain secure, complete, and reliable no matter how long it’s been stored; that’s when you know that the integrity of data is safe. A data integrity framework also ensures that no outside forces are harming this data. This term of data integrity may refer to either the state or a process. As a state, the data integrity framework defines a data set that is valid and accurate. Whereas as a process, it describes measures used to ensure validity and accuracy of data set or all data contained in a database or a construct. Data integrity can be enforced at both physical and logical levels. Let us understand the fundamentals of data integrity in detail: Types of Data Integrity There are two types of data integrity: physical and logical. They are collections of processes and methods that enforce data integrity in both hierarchical and relational databases. Physical Integrity Physical integrity protects the wholeness and accuracy of that data as it’s stored and retrieved. It refers to the process of storage and collection of data most accurately while maintaining the accuracy and reliability of data. The physical level of data integrity includes protecting data against different external forces like power cuts, data breaches, unexpected catastrophes, human-caused damages, and more. Logical Integrity Logical integrity keeps the data unchanged as it’s used in different ways in a relational database. Logical integrity checks data accuracy in a particular context. The logical integrity is compromised when errors from a human operator happen while entering data manually into the database. Other causes for compromised integrity of data include bugs, malware, and transferring data from one site within the database to another in the absence of some fields. There are four types of logical integrity: Entity Integrity A database has columns, rows, and tables. These elements need to be as numerous as required for the data to be accurate, but no more than necessary. Entity integrity relies on the primary key, the unique values that identify pieces of data, making sure the data is listed just once and not more to avoid a null field in the table. The feature of relational systems that store data in tables can be linked and utilized in different ways. Referential Integrity Referential integrity means a series of processes that ensure storage and uniform use of data. The database structure has rules embedded into them about the usage of foreign keys and ensures only proper changes, additions, or deletions of data occur. These rules can include limitations eliminating duplicate data entry, accurate data guarantee, and disallowance of data entry that doesn’t apply. Foreign keys relate data that can be shared or null. For example, let’s take a data integrity example, employees that share the same work or work in the same department. Domain Integrity Domain Integrity can be defined as a collection of processes ensuring the accuracy of each piece of data in a domain. A domain is a set of acceptable values a column is allowed to contain. It includes constraints that limit the format, type, and amount of data entered. In domain integrity, all values and categories are set. All categories and values in a database are set, including the nulls. User-Defined Integrity This type of logical integrity involves the user's constraints and rules to fit their specific requirements. The data isn’t always secure with entity, referential, or domain integrity. For example, if an employer creates a column to input corrective actions of the employees, this data would fall under user-defined integrity. Difference between Data Integrity and Data Security Often, the terms data security and data integrity get muddled and are used interchangeably. As a result, the term is incorrectly substituted for data integrity, but each term has a significant meaning. Data integrity and data security play an essential role in the success of each other. Data security means protecting data against unauthorized access or breach and is necessary to ensure data integrity. Data integrity is the result of successful data security. However, the term only refers to the validity and accuracy of data rather than the actual act of protecting data. Data security is one of the many ways to maintain data integrity. Data security focuses on reducing the risk of leaking intellectual property, business documents, healthcare data, emails, trade secrets, and more. Some facets of data security tactics include permissions management, data classification, identity, access management, threat detection, and security analytics. For modern enterprises, data integrity is necessary for accurate and efficient business processes and to make well-intentioned decisions. Data integrity is critical yet manageable for organizations today by backup and replication processes, database integrity constraints, validation processes, and other system protocols through varied data protection methods. Threats to Data Integrity Data integrity can be compromised by human error or any malicious acts. Accidental data alteration during the transfer from one device to another can be compromised. There is an assortment of factors that can affect the integrity of the data stored in databases. Following are a few of the examples: Human Error Data integrity is put in jeopardy when individuals enter information incorrectly, duplicate, or delete data, don’t follow the correct protocols, or make mistakes in implementing procedures to protect data. Transfer Error A transfer error occurs when data is incorrectly transferred from one location in a database to another. This error also happens when a piece of data is present in the destination table but not in the source table in a relational database. Bugs and Viruses Data can be stolen, altered, or deleted by spyware, malware, or any viruses. Compromised Hardware Hardware gets compromised when a computer crashes, a server gets down, or problems with any computer malfunctions. Data can be rendered incorrectly or incompletely, limit, or eliminate data access when hardware gets compromised. Preserving Data Integrity Companies make decisions based on data. If that data is compromised or incorrect, it could harm that company to a great extent. They routinely make data-driven business decisions, and without data integrity, those decisions can have a significant impact on the company’s goals. The threats mentioned above highlight a part of data security that can help preserve data integrity. Minimize the risk to your organization by using the following checklist: Validate Input Require an input validation when your data set is supplied by a known or an unknown source (an end-user, another application, a malicious user, or any number of other sources). The data should be validated and verified to ensure the correct input. Validate Data Verifying data processes haven’t been corrupted is highly critical. Identify key specifications and attributes that are necessary for your organization before you validate the data. Eliminate Duplicate Data Sensitive data from a secure database can easily be found on a document, spreadsheet, email, or shared folders where employees can see it without proper access. Therefore, it is sensible to clean up stray data and remove duplicates. Data Backup Data backups are a critical process in addition to removing duplicates and ensuring data security. Permanent loss of data can be avoided by backing up all necessary information, and it goes a long way. Back up the data as much as possible as it is critical as organizations may get attacked by ransomware. Access Control Another vital data security practice is access control. Individuals in an organization with any wrong intent can harm the data. Implement a model where users who need access can get access is also a successful form of access control. Sensitive servers should be isolated and bolted to the floor, with individuals with an access key are allowed to use them. Keep an Audit Trail In case of a data breach, an audit trail will help you track down your source. In addition, it serves as breadcrumbs to locate and pinpoint the individual and origin of the breach. Conclusion Data collection was difficult not too long ago. It is no longer an issue these days. With the amount of data being collected these days, we must maintain the integrity of the data. Organizations can thus make data-driven decisions confidently and take the company ahead in a proper direction. Frequently Asked Questions What are integrity rules? Precise data integrity rules are short statements about constraints that need to be applied or actions that need to be taken on the data when entering the data resource or while in the data resource. For example, precise data integrity rules do not state or enforce accuracy, precision, scale, or resolution. What is a data integrity example? Data integrity is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. A few examples where data integrity is compromised are: • When a user tries to enter a date outside an acceptable range • When a user tries to enter a phone number in the wrong format • When a bug in an application attempts to delete the wrong record What are the principles of data integrity? The principles of data integrity are attributable, legible, contemporaneous, original, and accurate. These simple principles need to be part of a data life cycle, GDP, and data integrity initiatives. { "@context": "https://schema.org", "@type": "FAQPage", "mainEntity": [{ "@type": "Question", "name": "What are integrity rules?", "acceptedAnswer": { "@type": "Answer", "text": "Precise data integrity rules are short statements about constraints that need to be applied or actions that need to be taken on the data when entering the data resource or while in the data resource. For example, precise data integrity rules do not state or enforce accuracy, precision, scale, or resolution." } },{ "@type": "Question", "name": "What is a data integrity example?", "acceptedAnswer": { "@type": "Answer", "text": "Data integrity is the overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. A few examples where data integrity is compromised are: When a user tries to enter a date outside an acceptable range When a user tries to enter a phone number in the wrong format When a bug in an application attempts to delete the wrong record" } },{ "@type": "Question", "name": "What are the principles of data integrity?", "acceptedAnswer": { "@type": "Answer", "text": "The principles of data integrity are attributable, legible, contemporaneous, original, and accurate. These simple principles need to be part of a data life cycle, GDP, and data integrity initiatives." } }] }

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Spotlight

Greenplum Database

Greenplum Database® is an advanced, fully featured, open source data warehouse. It provides powerful and rapid analytics on petabyte scale data volumes. Uniquely geared toward big data analytics, Greenplum Database is powered by the world’s most advanced cost-based query optimizer delivering high analytical query performance on large data volumes. Greenplum Database® project is released under the Apache 2 license. We want to thank all our current community contributors and are interested in all new potential contributions. For the Greenplum Database community no contribution is too small, we encourage all types of contributions.

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